かずおのスピーチ辞典 作成編〜Illustration〜


スピーチをより効果的に見せる技法として、Illustration (イラストレーション)というものがあります。Illustrationのメリットは、スピーチが面白くなり、Deliveryがつけやすくなります。

1. Metaphor (隠喩、暗喩 = like, asを用いない比喩)



1. Aの性質を考える

2. その性質を持ったものBを考える

3. AはBである

4. Aを「〜のB」と形容詞をつけて限定してみる

5. スピーチ中、AではなくBを続けて使ってみる

6. IntroductionとEndingだけにBを使ってみる (BodyではAを使う)



1. 人生の性質を考える。

 人生の性質 = 長くつらいもの

2. その性質を持ったものBを考える



3. 人生は旅である。(これで出来上がり。)

4. 人生を「〜の旅」と形容詞をつけて限定してみる


5. スピーチ中、「人生」ではなく「旅」を続けて使ってみる


6. IntroductionとEndingだけに「旅」を使ってみる (Bodyでは「人生」を使う)


ex1) 日本人はバナナのようだ。見た目は黄色(黄色人種)だが、中身(内心や態度)は白色(白色人種)と同じ。(Are Bananas Really Yellow?)

ex2) 上下の人間関係は、砂時計のように上下を入れ替えなければ使いものにならない。つまり両方の意見交換をすることによってスムーズになる。

ex3) "Russian roulette"--- it is a dangerous game in which one shoots at one's own head a gun with a bullet in only one of chambers, without knowing whether it will fire or not. Have you ever played Russian roulette? No? Really? Think again! Maybe you just aren't aware of it. In Japan, choosing a hospital is the same as playing Russian roulette, we are staking our lives on fate. ("Another form of Russian Roulette"より)


以上のプロセスを Extemporaneous speech (即興スピーチ) を通して、いろいろなものを即座にうまく例えられるように練習してみる。


2. Simile (直喩 = as, like, as if, soを用いる比喩)


ex1) Love is like a measles; we all have to go through it. (恋愛ははしかのようなもの、誰でも一度はかかるもの) (Jerome K. Jerome "On being in Love")

ex2) a face like marble/(as) happy as a lark/as brave as a lion/as weak as water/meek as Moses


- 意味が明らかな例

as brave as a lion as white as snow [marvels]

- 意味は変だが、頭韻によってリズムを出している例

as bold as a bless

as cool as a cucumber

as dead as a doornail




 Metaphor→ 人生は、旅である

 Simile → 人生は、旅のように長くつらいものである

 Metaphor→ He is a fox.

 Simile → He is like (as sly as) a fox.

お笑いのいわゆる「謎かけ」(〜とかけて〜と解く。その心は〜。) も、上に紹介したのと同じ手法で作れますね。(^・^)


3. Personification(擬人法)


ex) Truth is justice's handmaid, freedom is it's child, peace is it's companion.


4. Repetition (全く同じフレーズや、同じ構文の繰り返し)

文の始まりの部分を繰り返す (3回のRepetitionが聞こえがいいことが多い)

自分の意見をサポートするKey Word、もしくは同じフレーズを繰り返す

ex1) We shall overcome our hate. We shall overcome differences. We shall overcome them someday. Deep in my heart, I do believe we shall overcome someday.

ex2) Always have in mind that seeing-eye dogs aren't ordinary pets. Always have in mind how he seeing-eye dogs work for the users. Always have in mind that it is the eye and the heart.

ex3) I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia, the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slaveowners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood. I have a dream that one day even the State of the Mississippi, a state sweltering with the heat of injustice, sweltering with the heat of oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice. I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character. I have a dream today-- I have a dream that one day down in Alabama, with its vicious racists, with its governor having his lips dripping with the words of interposition and nullification, one day right there in Alabama little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls as sisters and brothers. I have a dream today- I have a dream that one day every valley shall be exalted, every hill and mountain shall be made low, the rough places will be made plain, and the crooked places will be made straight, and the glory of the Lord shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together. This is our hope. This is the faith that I go back to the South with. With this faith we will be able to hew out of the mountain of despair a stone of hope. With this faith we will be able to transform the jangling discords of our nation into a beautiful symphony of brotherhood. With this faith we will be able to work together, to pray together, to struggle together, to go to jail together, to stand up for freedom together, knowing that we will be free one day! (キング牧師)

※ 強調したい文のRepetition

ex) As you heard (I mentioned) earlier,〜

cf. Ellipsis(省略)

ex1) Our team is fit, fast, [and] fearless.

ex2) We must have pride in our work, [we must have] pride in our products, and most of all [we must have] pride in ourselves.


5. Contrast (対比)

a. antithesis (対句法)


ex1) Man proposes, God disposes.(事をはかるは人、事をなすは天)(Proverb)

ex2) He must increase, but I must decrease.(彼は必ず栄え、わたしは衰える)

ex3) Dark and bright, earth and heaven, passive and active. These are some of the pairs of notions focused upon in the Chinese philosophy of Ying-Yang(陰と陽).

ex4) Genius is one percent inspiration and ninety-nine percent perspiration. (Thomas Edison, Newspaper Interview, 1931)

cf. Tricolon(Speaking in three's)(3つの対句)(形容詞を3つ重ねる)

ex1)"The good, bad and the ugly."

ex2) Abraham Lincoln's government "of the people, by the people, for the people."

cf. Balance (抑揚バランス)


ex1) Latin proverb: "No song, no supper."

ex2) If people mean success, then success means people.


ex1) A kiss is something you cannot give without taking and cannot take without giving.

ex2) Love the life that you live. Live the life that you love.

ex3) And so, my fellow Americans: ask not what your country can do for you−ask what you can do for your country. My fellow citizens of the world: ask not what American will do for you, but what together we can do for the freedom of man. (ケネディー大統領就任演説) (文章の対比と共にAmericaとWorldの対比)

b. 内容を際立たせるためのQuality, Quantityの対比


- Qualityの対比

"Soon the home computer will be a standard appliance just like the television."

→ the home computer, standard = the television, standard

- Quantityの対比

"Unemployment in Japan remains less than 3%, as opposed to a painful 7% in the United States."

→ Japan, 3% < the United States, 7%


6. Rhyme, Alliteration (韻)

a. Rhyme(脚韻) 「英語逆引き辞典」を利用すると良い

ex1) Honesty is such a lovely word Everyone is so untrue Honesty is hardly ever heard And mostly what I need from you

ex2) As this world gets even smaller, let us not be "Internationally blinded" by the illusion of being "Internationally minded"

ex3) A Psalm of Life---H.W. Longfellow 人生の賛歌 Tell me not, in mournful numbers, 悲しき歌もて われに告ぐるな "Life is but an empty dream!" 「人生は空虚なる夢にすぎぬ」と。 For the soul is dead that slumbers, 眠れる魂は死せるにて And things are not what they seem 真(まこと)は外見(うわべ)と異なるものなれば。

b. Alliteration (頭韻)(単語の1文字目の子音を重ねる) 「英和辞典」を利用すると良い

ex1) cool, cloudy day

ex2) The city office is filled with nothing but a bevy of bumbling bureaucrats.

cf. Assonance (母音類似語)(母音を重ねる)

ex1) Dirty shirt

ex2) Old King Cole was a merry old soul.


7. Double meaning (ダブル・ミーニング)



8. Humor, Joke, Irony (ユーモア、冗談、ジョーク、皮肉)

ex) 「飲み水は、危険である」という内容のスピーチで以下のようにスピーチを終える。

Would you like a cup of water? (水を一杯いかがですか)


9. End Focus (文末焦点)


ex) With this faith, we will be able to work together, to pray together, to struggle together, to go to jail together, to stand up for freedom together, knowing that we will be free one day. (キング牧師 "I Have a Dream")



10. Appealing to pride (自尊心に訴える)


We Americans of today, together with our allies, are passing through a period of supreme test. It is a test of our courage−of our resolve−of our wisdom−of our essential democracy. (F.ルーズベルト第4回就任演説)

I feel it's a shame to be a Japanese today, letting our media jeopardise peace in our country. We certainly have a lot to learn from many other countries that had already solved these problems more than decades ago. ("The Sinners to Repent" by Shu Watanabe)


11. Key Word (キーワード)

スピーチにおけるキーワード (自分の造語など)を作り、スピーチ中に何回か使う。


12. Rhetoric (修辞法、雄弁術)



Background ReadingChapter 1 CPR


※ タイトルの作成

聴衆の興味をひくもの (面白いもの)





Conclusion, Endingで使うもの



1. Key Wordを使う(漠然と内容を暗示)

2. Metaphorを使う(Speechの中にMetaphorを使っている場合)

3. 疑問文を使う(自分の問題を前もって考えておいてもらう)

4. 引用する(そのまま使う/少しもじって使う)

5. ダブル・ミーニングを使う

6. 英語独特の表現を使う

7. 自分の言いたいことをズバッという(比較的Topicが難しい時、常識の裏を行く場合に有効)






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